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Why Children Need the COVID-19 Vaccine

By Valerie Borum Smith, MD, MPH, FAAP
Read time: 5 minutes

Good news for parents - children who are 5 years and older can now get the COVID-19 vaccine, and it couldn't come at a better time. While children are less likely to develop severe illness from COVID-19, they are still at risk. Families deserve the chance to have an active life without the constant worries. The vaccine is the best shot at a normal life, protected from COVID.

Which COVID-19 vaccines can children get?

While adults have several options, Pfizer-BioNTech is currently the only option available for minors, age 5 and older. To be effective, this vaccine is given in two doses that are  three weeks (21 days) apart. Maximum protection is achieved two weeks after receiving the second shot.

Is the COVID-19 vaccine safe for children?

Yes. The vaccine was developed using science that has been around for decades, and it received emergency authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. The Pfizer vaccine was tested and monitored for safety and effectiveness in children 5 and older, just as it was tested for adults. Millions of children aged 5 -17 have received the vaccine in the United States.

Can children get the virus from the vaccine?

No. The vaccine does not contain the live virus, so your child cannot get COVID from the vaccine.

Why are pediatricians recommending children get the vaccine?

Our role as pediatricians is to keep patients safe and healthy and to allow them to get back to normal activities. When parents ask me if they should get their children vaccinated for COVID-19, I recommend they do. I would never recommend something I wouldn't recommend for my own child, a family member, or a loved one.

Another reason for getting the vaccine is that children can spread the virus to others. There could be family members, friends, teachers, classmates, or others who have a health condition that puts them at greater risk of getting COVID and facing serious consequences. The vaccine helps prevent the spread of COVID to everyone around them.

The COVID-19 protects those who can’t get a vaccine, like younger children and those with health conditions.
Good to Know

Who says so?

Pediatricians, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) all recommend that eligible children and teens get the COVID-19 vaccine.

Millions of children in the United States have tested positive for the virus since the start of the pandemic, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics, and hundreds have died.

When and how was the vaccine tested?

Scientists conducted clinical trials with thousands of children and no serious safety concerns were identified. The FDA gave the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine emergency authorization to use in children ages 5-15 years old and full approval to use in people ages 16 years and older. COVID-19 vaccines have undergone - and continue to undergo - the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history. Thousands of children have participated in Pfizer and Moderna studies, and more than 24 million children 5 and older have been vaccinated.


Are your kids vaccinated?

When parents ask me if they should get their children vaccinated for COVID-19, I recommend they do. I would never recommend something I wouldn't recommend for my own loved ones. I have three teenagers, and we were in line the first Saturday we could get them vaccinated. The fact that they are fully vaccinated really does give me great comfort and has allowed us to have a summer filled with vacation, friends, and family.

The COVID-19 vaccine is the best shot at a normal life.

Did they rush the testing to get the vaccine approved quickly?

No. Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades. This includes studies for the vaccines for the flu, Zika, and rabies. All that work made it possible for scientists to create the COVID-19 vaccine. Once necessary information about the COVID virus was available, scientists began designing the specific mRNA instructions that would be effective against the  virus.

Does the vaccine change your DNA (genetic material)?

No. The COVID mRNA vaccine does not affect or interact with DNA  in any way. It never enters the nucleus of the cell, which is where  DNA is kept.

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What information is available about the long-term effects of the vaccine?

The long-term effects are not known for children or adults at this time. The long-term effects of getting COVID are not known either. However, research has shown that some children who have recovered from a mild case of COVID may have long-term inflammation in the heart and lungs.

What are the short-term side effects in children who have gotten the vaccine?

Some children have experienced pain at the injection site, fever, chills, tiredness, headache, and joint and muscle pain. These typically lasted one to three days. In general, the risks from getting COVID-19 are  much greater than the risks of getting the vaccine.

Should my child get the vaccine if they have allergies?

If your child has a history of severe allergic reaction to any ingredient in the vaccine (such as polyethylene glycol), they should not get the vaccine. It is important to talk to your pediatrician about the vaccine, especially if your child has a history of allergies.

The COVID-19 vaccine is free and available at local pharmacies.

Where can I get my child vaccinated?

Vaccines are being given at pediatrician offices and at pharmacies. Be sure to check in advance if you need an appointment or if walk-in options are available. You can also visit or call 1-833-832-7067 to find a vaccine near you.

How much does it cost, and do I need insurance?

The vaccine is free for everyone. You and your child do not need insurance to get a COVID vaccination.

When will younger children be able to get the vaccine?

There is no set date as to when a vaccine will be available for children under five. So it is important that all family members eligible for a vaccine, and booster, be fully vaccinated to help protect those who aren't vaccinated.  As we see more contagious variants of COVID-19, we will likely see more people become ill, including young children. While thankfully most young children recover well from COVID-19, there are some that develop life-threatening complications such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). They can also spread COVID-19 to more vulnerable family and community members.

Children five to 11 are expected to receive approval to get the vaccine in the winter.

Can my child get the COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines at the same time?

Yes, the COVID vaccine can be given with other childhood immunizations. If your child is behind on HPV, meningococcal, and other recommended vaccines, now is a good time to catch up and get all the necessary vaccines with the COVID shot.

How should I make the best decision for my family on the getting the vaccine?

Talk to your child's pediatrician or health care provider. They will know your child's medical history and can make a recommendation based on information specific to your child and family situation.

Have a question about the COVID-19 vaccination?

Contact the team at

Dr. Valerie Borum Smith

Valerie Borum Smith, MD, MPH, FAAP

Dr. Valerie Borum Smith is a pediatrician at St. Paul Children's Services in Tyler, Texas, and is a member of the Texas Medical Association COVID-19 taskforce.

Learn more about the author.

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